Briškula and trešete
Briškula (from the Italian original Briscola) and trešete (from the Italian original tressette, which means three weeks) are card games originating from Italy, domesticated on the Croatian coast and islands. It is played with cards originating from Trieste (Italian: carte triestine). The deck (mac) has 40 cards divided into four colors: “kope”, “baštoni”, “špade” and “danari”.
Briškula can be played in twos, fours or two pairs, and is rarely played in three players (then one card is dealt). The game in pairs is marked and it is interesting to communicate with mottos, ie agreed secret signs among teammates.
The classic trešete is played in four players, in pairs two against two. It can be played in pairs. According to the same basic rules of the game, you play trešete with “kuža” (vocations or call-outs, usually up to 41 points) and without call-outs (usually up to 31 points).
There are small variations in the rules of the game in the different areas in which these games have taken root. At the tournament as part of the Cres kaić, briškula and trešeta are played alternately.
Mora cantada is a traditional game for two or four players which roots go as far as the 7th century B.C. and ancient Egypt, and was also played in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, in the northern Adriatic the sea was probably brought by Roman legionaries.
In Italy it is called morra, in France mourre, in the Arab world muharaja, in Dalmatia mura and šijavica, and in Istria, as well as on Cres, mora kantada. Players display the outstretched fingers of one hand and try to guess the sum of the finger indicators, between which the shouting number is in the range of 2 to 10. Modified Italian numbers “shi”, “sete” (sei, sette) are shouted. Although the game has elements of luck, the skill of the player comes to the fore.
Today, this game is no longer so popular among the younger generations of islanders, and the organization of competitions is one of the ways to keep it from being forgotten.
Boules is a traditional sport, typical for the entire Mediterranean area, including the Adriatic coast. Its name comes from the Italian word “boccia”, ie ball, and in Croatia it is also called boće, balote, bućanje, burela and bulin. Historians have divided opinions about the origins of this game: some believe it originated in the Basque Country, while others believe it originated in Italy. There is information that a sport similar to today’s boules existed in ancient Egypt, and the inhabitants of ancient Greece had a similar game. Historically, boules were played with stone balls, which were eventually replaced by those made of baked clay and then wooden ones. Nowadays, however, metal balls or made of synthetic materials are most often used. The boules are played with balls (bowls) on a flat surface, and the goal is to throw the ball so that it rolls as close as possible to the bow (a smaller ball that represents a kind of target). For each boule closest to the bulin, a point (punat) is obtained. Only boules that are closer to the bulin than the opponents’ are scored. It is played until one of the teams reaches 13 points.
Chess (Persian: king) is one of the oldest board games, and contains elements of sports fighting, thought combinatorics and free creative activities. It has been played since the 6th century, but is thought to have originated much earlier, probably at the beginning of our era. The origin of this game is not precisely determined, but it is believed to have originated in India and Persia, and was brought to Europe by the Arabs. The foundations of modern chess were laid in the 15th century, and the rules subsequently underwent numerous changes and were finally established in the 19th century. Chess develops memory, improves concentration and encourages the development of emotional intelligence. Like playing cards and playing the sea, chess is also a suitable game for shortening time on long sea voyages.
Rope pulling (tug of war)
It is not known the time and place where the tug-of-war competitions began, so it is usually considered to be a traditional folk game. The tug of war has been found, however, to originate from ancient ceremonies and cults, which can be found all over the world, from Egypt, Burma, India, Borneo, Japan, Korea to Hawaii and South America.
In ancient times, there were different styles of tug of war. For example, in Afghanistan, teams pulled a wooden pole instead of a rope, and in Korea, children wrapped their arms around their waists to form a living rope. Over time, tug of war became a pure competition in physical strength. In Greece, the cradle of the ancient Olympic Games, athletes practiced tug of war for about 500 years BC either as a competitive sport or as a physical exercise in training for other sports. Evidence of tug of war in Western Europe dates back to the 10th century and is found in the stories of the heroic champions of Scandinavia and Germany, who took part in the so-called ‘kräftige spiele’ (power games). In the 15th century, popular tug-of-war tournaments were organized in Chateaux, France, and competitions in Great Britain.
In more recent times, in the period 1900-1920. year, tug of war was also an Olympic sport. Today, in many countries there are tug-of-war sports clubs and competitions are organized as in other sports. There is also the International Rope Pulling Federation, which has over 70 members (national associations).
In Croatia, tug of war is not practiced like a real sport, but competitions are usually organized as part of local manifestations of traditional customs and games. It is similar in Cres, where the tradition of pulling ropes dates back to the time when the transport of goods was done by ships, and sailing ships sailed into the port of Cres. Then the crews of the ships, while waiting for a suitable wind to set sail, shortened the time by pulling the ropes and measured their strength. Today, tug of war is considered a game that has become part of the island’s identity and has entered the program of all local traditional events.
Rope pulling is a typical sport of strength and fitness in which two teams oppose each other. The official rules stipulate that two teams of eight members are lined up at the two ends of the rope on which the middle is marked and one point on each side which is 4 meters away from the middle. The competition begins by placing the center point of the rope over the center of the competition field; the goal of each team is to pull the opposing team to their side so that the marked point on the opposing side crosses the center of the field.
Underwater fishing and angling
People have been involved in fishing since ancient times, first for food and later as an economic activity. Numerous finds confirm that fish were caught as early as the younger Paleolithic, and in written documents fishing is mentioned in Egyptian, Herodotus and especially biblical records.
Croatian fishing is first mentioned in 995 in a grant from the Zadar nobility. The Statute of Dubrovnik from 1272 mentions the use of light in fishing for small blue fish, with the use of a trawl net. Sardine hunting on the eastern coast of the Adriatic developed strongly in the 16th century with the use of nets under the light and standing nets, sardines. At the beginning of the XVII. century around the islands of Cres and Lošinj developed a large industrial sardine hunt. Until the end of the 1980s, a blue fish processing factory operated in the town of Cres. Today, fishing on the island of Cres is no longer as important an economic branch as it used to be, but in recent years a new maritime activity has developed – mariculture – which is dominated by cage farming of sea bass and sea bream.
In recent decades, sport fishing has become increasingly popular, practiced for recreation. The goal of this type of fishing is not to get food or make money from selling the catch, but the point is to look for and catch fish as a kind of fun in outwitting a wild animal. To the island population, sport fishing has a deeper meaning, because in a way it is part of its tradition and connection with the territory and way of life.
The two most popular sport fishing disciplines are spearfishing and angling (can be practiced from the shore or from a boat). The competition that is held as part of our event is open, with the possibility of participation of all anglers. Fishing contestants are divided into two categories: children and adults.
Brudetijada (broth-making competition)
Brudetijada is a competition to choose the best broth prepared from fish caught by angling and spearfishing. The word brudet is derived from the Italian word brodo – brodetto. The French call it bouillabaisse, the Greeks bourdeto, the Brazilians moqueca, and the Cresani brudet or brodeto. In some coastal areas it is known as brodet, and in the central and southern Adriatic brujet. What they all have in common is that a variety of fresh fish is cooked in a large pot, while the other ingredients vary. No matter how it is prepared, this is one of the most delicious fish dishes in the Adriatic, both on the Croatian and Italian side.
The Brudetijada is designed as a competition open to the participation of culinary teams of islanders, as well as visitors who want to try their hand at preparing this popular fish dish.